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"Be" and Particles

1. "Be" is translated into ある(aru) or いる(iru) under the following rules.
Rules Examples
If the subject is material for the verb "be", ある is used. 鶏小屋は庭にある。(A chicken house is in the garden.)
傘は取っ手に掛けてある。(An umbrella is on the handle. ; Subject for "掛けて" is not "an umbrella".)
If the subject is living thing, いる is used.
Even if for material, if a verb (except for "be") is used
for the subject, いる is used. Also in passive cases.
(There are exceptional cases in dialects.)
鶏は庭にいる。(A chicken is in the garden.)
休日は家にいる。((I am) home on holidays.)
花は庭に咲いている。(A flower is blooming in the garden. ; "Blooming" is a verb other than "be".)
傘は取っ手に掛けられている。(An umbrella is on the handle. ; Subject for "掛けられて" is "an umbrella".)

2. "With" is translated into particles(助詞) (to) or (de) under the following rules.
Rules Examples
If the noun is in the same position that can also be the subject, is used. 私は、彼仲が悪い。(I'm not in a good relation with him.)
If the noun is a tool to do, is used. 石鹸手を洗え。(Wash hands with soap.)

3. "By", "on", "in", "at" are translated into particles (de) or (ni) under the following rules.
Rules Examples
If the verb is rather active, or the object is where
some action comes from, is used.
鶏は庭鳴いている。(A checken is cooing in the garden.)
バーベキューは庭する。(Bargecue is done in the garden.)
泥棒は庭(or )じっとしていた。(The thief was breathing still in the garden. ; To be still is an active deed.)
On the contrary, if the verb is either static, passive,
asking, relying or at least tranquil, or the object is
where some action goes to, is used.
傘は取っ手掛けてある。(An umbrella is on the handle. ; Static. As "an umbrella" is not who "hang".)
傘は取っ手掛けられている。(An umbrella is on the handle. ; "An umbrella" is passive.)
荷物は玄関放置された。(Package was left at the entrance. ; Passive.)
彼の習字は筆頼っていた。(His carrigraphy was relying on the brush. ; Relying.)
コスモスは庭(or )咲いている。(Cosmos is blooming in the garden. ; "To bloom" is rather tranquil.)

4. Sentence types are organized as the next table, using following simbols.
Types Rules Examples
SN, SA or SV One of "は", "が" or "も" usually
follows the subject. They are not
verbs but have similar function as
"be" in English grammar.
ペンギン鳥だ。(SN: Penguin is a bird.)
美しい。(SA(adjective): The sea is beautiful.)
穏やかだ。(SA(adjective-verb): The sea is tranquil.)
きれいだ。(SA(adjective-verb): You are beautiful.)
きれいだ。(SA(adjective-verb): I also am beautiful.)
だってきれいだ。(SA(adjective-verb): I also am beautiful.)
歩く。(SV: I walk.)
SON, SOA In English, same function is realized
using a verb "be".
彼は心根仏だ。(SON: His mind is Budda.)
彼女は髪美しい。(SOA: Her hair is beautiful. She is beautiful at hair(a little strange English though).)
彼は魚嫌いだ。(SOA: He hates fish.)
この作家は名前知られている。(SOA: This writer's name is well known.)
この豆腐には味沁みている。(COA: This tofu is seasoned well.)
このブランドは値段たか知れている。(SOOA: This brand is not so expensive.)
SOV Sentence pattern that has an object. 猫は魚食べる。(SOV: Cats eat fish.)
猫は野菜食べない。(SOV) --- 野菜猫は食べない。(OSV: Cats don't eat vegetables)
are both possible. They are safe from misunderstanding, however, logically ambiguous.
"を", which is only used for objects can resolve ambiguities.
猫が野菜食べることない。(SOVSA) is a complete expression for this case.
彼は魚嫌う。(SOV: He hates fish.)
SCV, SOCV Sentence pattern that has a complement. Examples are stated in the next table.

5. Particles (wa) and (mo) are used as an annexation to other particles.
Although (wa) is most fundamental if used after a subject, it has a nuance "however". So, it is also used as a combination with other atomic-particles.
To use the subject itself, basic form to emphasize subject itself is (ga). For an object, (o) is basic.
Combination of atomic-particles and , is done as following.

Basic particles and , that follow the former.
Items with yellow back-ground and blue back-ground are exceptional cases which have consistency only within the same color.
Items より and よりも which have pink back-ground, have almost same meanings.
basic however
subject object
with by,in,
to for,
from than examples
(ga) (wa) (mo) 台湾島だ。(SN: Taiwan is an island.)
その山高い。(SA: The mountain is high.)
挙手しました。(SV: I raised a hand.)
挙手しなかった。(SV: You didn't raise a hand.)
彼女意見に賛成した。(SCV: She also was for the opinion.)
SON, SOA (ga) (wa) (mo) 私はパン好物だ。(SON: I like bread.)
私はパン好きだ。(SOA: I like bread.)
君はライ麦パン好きか?(SOA: Do you like rye-bread?)
私はご飯好きだ。(SOA: I like rice also.)
彼女は髪長い。(SOA: She has a long hair.)
君は業績世間で評価されている。(SOCA: Your work is respected in the world.)
SOV (o) (wa) (mo) ヨーロッパはフランス含む。(SOV: Europe includes France.)
ヨーロッパはブラジル含まない。(SOV: Europe doesn't include Brazil.)
溺れる者は藁(を)も掴む。(SOV: Who struggles in the water grips even a straw.)
(to) とは(towa) とも(tomo) 卓球を彼女せよ。(OCV: Play tabletennis with her.)
私はテニスを彼女とはしたくない。(SOCV: I don't want to play tennis with her.)
私は、彼とも仲が悪い。(SCOA; I'm neither in good relation with him.)
(de) では(dewa) でも(demo) 石鹸手を洗え。(COV: Wash hands with soap.)
野菜は洗剤では洗わない方がいい。(OCVSA: You might not wash vegetables with detergent.)
写真はスマホでも撮れる。(OCV: You can take a picture also with a smart-phone.)
彼は報告書を手書き作った。(SOCV: He made up a report by hand.)
虫が庭鳴いている。(SCV: Bugs are singing in the garden.)
鳥が枝鳴いている。(SCV: A bird is singing on a branch.)
長針は6止まっている。(SCV: The long needle is stopping at six.)
私の父親は90歳亡くなった。(SCV: My father died at ninety.)
(ni) には(niwa) にも(nimo) この問題は先生聞こう。(OCV: Let's ask the teacher of this problem.)
彼の処寄る積りだ。(CVN: I'm going to drop by him.)
彼女の不正は先生見つかった。(SCV: Her cheating was found by the teacher.)
切手は郵便局有る。(SCV: Stamps are sold in a post-office.)
花瓶は靴箱の上置く。(OCV: A vase is to place on the shoe-box.)
皆は彼の大胆さ驚いた。(SCV: Everybody astounded at his boldness.)
このバスは東京行く。(SCV: This bus is going to Tokyo.)
(e) へは(ewa) へも(emo) このバスは東京行く。(SCV: This bus is going to Tokyo.)
まで(made) までは
このバスは東京まで行く。(SCV: This bus is bound for Tokyo.)
この展覧会は週末までだ。(SC: This exhibition is until this weekend.)
この車には5人まで乗れる。(OCV: This car can carry not more than five persons.)
から(kara) からは
大島行きの船はここから出る。(SCV: Ship to Oshima leaves from here.)
より(yori) よりは
バスではここより先には行けない。(CCCV: Bus is not available from here.)
案ずるより生むのがた易い。(COA: Doing is easier than considering.)

6. Other particles can also be used with an annexation of or . Following are possible particles.

など(etc. like ...)、などは、なども
だけ(only, as much as)、だけは、だけも
のみ(only, as much as)、のみは、のみも
しか(as little as)
すら(not even)、すらも